The first paper was given by Jan van Oostveen, Tiel,
Netherlands on pipes of German origin found in the Netherlands. At first
sight it appears surprising that German clay pipes should have been imported
by the main clay-pipe-producing country in Europe. Imports began around
the middle of the 18th century and continued into the 19th century. So
far, clay pipes from four German production centres have been found: Wanfried,
Hildesheim, Grünstadt, and the Westerwald area. These finds in the
Netherlands suggest that German pipes were transported via the Rhine and
then the Ijssel into the North Sea coastal region. The administration
of Overijssel attempted to prevent the import of cheap German pipes, and
thus to protect the Dutch clay-pipe makers, by means of an import duty.
By far the most important region in Germany in which clay pipes were produced
for the Dutch market was the so-called Kannenbäckerland in the Westerwald.
Clay pipes from these factories, which were modelled on Gouda clay pipes,
turn up again and again in the eastern part of the Netherlands between
Groningen and Maastricht. In the 19th century, German porcelain pipes
were also smoked in the eastern part of the Netherlands. The lecture stimulated
lively discussion on why German pipes had found their way to the Netherlands,
and in particular, whether these finds point to an organised export of
clay pipes or whether alternatively there is a cultural explanation.
Ralf Kluttig-Altmann, Leipzig gave a brief summary of the history
of clay-pipe production and trade in Germany. Clay-pipe making began in
Germany before or around 1650 in several regions. This early period is
a research field which has, in the last few years, yielded unexpected
results and will certainly open up new facets of the clay-pipe picture.
These early production methods were modelled on those used in Holland,
although some were the makers' own methods, independent of outside influence.
After 1650 the first production centres were established, which supplied
relatively large areas with pipes. But most of these centres had disappeared
(Mannheim and Bavaria) by 1700. In the 18th century the most important
production centre in Germany was established in the Westerwald; otherwise
there were about 200 individual places where clay pipes were made, although
production was not continuous or on a large scale. About 300 places are
now known in Germany where clay pipes were produced; new discoveries are
still being made, increasingly of potters who also made clay pipes. Import
of clay pipes from the Netherlands, particularly from Gouda, has always
played a role in Germany, although the volume of imports was not as high,
particularly in the 18th and 19th centuries, as it was once thought to
Ruud Stamm, Leiden, Netherlands, gave an account of the important
role played by middlemen in the distribution of clay pipes. He dealt with
the organisation of the clay-pipe trade, the merchants' and customers'
preference for clay pipes bearing certain makers' marks, and the individual
pipemakers' own retail sales. In the first half of the 17th century the
pipemakers themselves sold their own pipes. Normally, clay pipes were
sold in the pipemaker's house, where there was both a workshop and shop,
usually supplying the local market. Later, clay pipes were exported via
Dutch salesmen. The author showed that most of the clay pipes found in
Weimar and Erfurt were made in Gouda between about 1720 and 1820 and are
of excellent quality. Moreover, the marks recorded on these finds must,
over this period, have belonged to several pipemakers, successive owners
of the same mark. This demonstrates that the export of pipes to a certain
district in Germany was not restricted to the working life of a single
Gouda pipemaker, but that both salesmen and customers preferred pipes
bearing their favourite mark or marks.
Natascha Mehler, Ingolstadt, discussed the Dutch and other influences
affecting clay-pipe production methods in Bavaria. Finds of clay pipes
from Holland are rare in Bavaria, at least those from the 17th and early
18th centuries. There is a slight increase in the frequency of clay-pipe
imports from Holland, however, during the course of the 18th century.
The identified pipes originate from Gouda and Amsterdam. The few finds
of Dutch pipes were mostly excavated in free cities of the Reich, such
as Augsburg, which were not subject to the Bavarian state tobacco monopoly.
The Dutch clay-pipe-making methods and products were taken as patterns
in Bavaria, as can be seen by the two-piece moulds and the system of production.
The shapes of the Bavarian pipes were also modelled on Dutch pipes. Thus
the so-called Sir Walter Raleigh pipes provided a pattern for their Bavarian
counterparts. In spite of this, some shapes were used that were independent
of Dutch pipes, and in particular the floral patterns were local designs.
In addition to the classical clay pipe, a stub-stemmed type of pipe had
already appeared during the 17th century. This was a completely different
type of pipe and represented a development wholly independent of Holland.
Marita Pesenecker, Grimma, and Berndt Standke, Freiberg, presented
new information about clay-pipe production in the town of Altenburg, Thuringia.
In 1995 archaeological excavations were carried out at 25/26 Pauritzer
Strasse in Altenburg. They yielded a vast quantity of clay-pipe fragments.
Analysis of these and the raw clay also found at the site showed an almost
exact correlation between the two. The earliest documentary evidence of
a clay-pipe maker in Altenburg in 1714 points to a certain Jacob Laspe,
who, like his brother in Waldenburg, originated from Hannoversch Münden.
Jacob's youngest son Johann Salomon produced clay pipes at 26 Pauritzer
Gasse after 1773, which yielded the material mentioned above. Production
continued until 1819, when Christian Friedrich Laspe, Johann Salomon's
son, went bankrupt. The Laspe clay-pipe factory was, however, continued
by Christian Friedrich, who moved away from Altenburg and started production
in Fürstenhayn near Dresden. This factory closed down in the second
half of the 19th century.
The material from the Altenburg site has been dated around 1800. Production
made use of 46 different forms, a surprisingly large number. Altogether
20 different heel marks, again an unexpectedly large number, have been
documented. The 10,000 stem fragments found yielded 319 pieces bearing
hand-rolled bands with inscriptions. Altogether, 74% of the inscriptions
relate to the Dresden pipemaker Prevor/Prevot, 18% are copies of Gouda
pipes, and the remaining 8% show various names, including "J. C.
LASPE" (Johann Christian Laspe) and "ALTENBURG".
Andreas Heege of the Archäologischen Dienst des Kantons Bern,
Switzerland, gave an account of the history of tobacco in the Canton of
Bern on the basis of archaeological finds and historical sources. In the
1560s tobacco leaves and seeds were introduced into Germany and Switzerland.
Conrad Gessner, the man of universal learning from Zurich, received a
picture of a tobacco plant from Benedict Aretius of Bern, which the latter
had grown in his garden. This is the oldest known record of tobacco in
Switzerland. A book by Jacob Ziegler printed in 1616 contains the first
published mention of tobacco in Switzerland as well as reports on the
medical effects of tobacco and of smoking. A mural from Bern dated 1630
shows a small bear wearing a beret decorated with feathers who is smoking.
The oldest finds of tobacco pipes in Bern demonstrate that about 1650
not only was tobacco imported from the Netherlands, but also tobacco and
clay pipes from the Rhineland-Palatinate, i.e. the region around Mannheim,
Heidelberg and Frankenthal. Diverse laws against the use of tobacco were
passed in Bern between 1659 and 1677. As early as 1702 and again in 1705,
the "Kleine Rat" (small council) of Bern, following the spirit
of the age, discussed whether and where tobacco should be allowed to be
grown, and in the following years tobacco growing became very popular.
The repeal of the anti-tobacco laws and the consequent fall in the price
of tobacco as a result of it being grown locally are reflected in archaeological
finds. Altogether 3000 clay-pipe fragments from the 18th and early 19th
centuries have so far been found in Bern. All of these are imports. Apparently
at that time there was no local production of heeled pipes of white clay
in Bern or in Switzerland. The sale of pipes from southern Germany appears
to have been minimal. It was not until the late 18th century, and then
primarily in the first half of the 19th century, that clay pipes from
Westerwald were sold in Bern.
Eva Roth Heege of the Kantonsarchäologie in Zug, Switzerland,
gave a presentation on 17th to 19th century clay pipes from the Canton
of Zug. Finds of clay pipes in Zug demonstrate that they were used for
tobacco smoking from the middle of the 17th century well into the 20th
century. The earliest written record of smoking tobacco pipes dates from
1618. Since, as far as we know, there was no local production of clay
pipes in Zug, we must assume that all clay pipes were imported via the
large town markets ("Messen"). In the second half of the 17th
century, clay pipes from the Palatine Electorate, from southern Germany
and the Alsace area made up a significant proportion of the market. One
can show that the clay-pipe finds in the Canton of Zug originated primarily
from the Netherlands and, particularly in the 18th century, from Westerwald.
As far as 19th century pipes are concerned, there is a significant amount
of the robust, red-fired stub-stemmed pipes, which were imported from
Austria. So far seven stub-stemmed pipes of the Osman-Turkish type have
been found; they all belong to the second half of the 19th century. The
stub-stemmed pipes so far found in the Canton of Zug represent the largest
collection of this type known from Switzerland. One particular type of
stub-stemmed pipe, with a funnel-shaped bowl, should be commented on;
it probably dates from the late 17th century. In contrast to the traditional
method of clay-pipe production, this funnel-shaped pipe was not made in
a mould. The distribution of this type of pipe suggests that it was made
in the German-speaking part of Switzerland or in southern Germany.
Carsten Spindler, Braunschweig (Brunswick), reported on his experiments
with tobacco growing in his own garden. Since he aimed at producing a
mild cigarette tobacco, he concentrated primarily on Virginia varieties.
However, a small number of plants of two Burley varieties, a stronger
tobacco, were also grown in order to obtain the optimum blend. The whole
process from sowing in the middle of March, care of the plants, harvesting,
drying, curing, removal of the mid-rib by hand, and cutting the leaves
was highly labour-intensive, but nevertheless produced a pleasant-tasting
smoking tobacco, free of additives. In Germany the law allows tobacco
to be grown and tobacco products to be made only on a scale to suit one's
own personal requirements. This is normally reckoned as 100 tobacco plants,
which is sufficient for several kilograms of tobacco.
Jens Lipsdorf, Cottbus, presented the results of archaeological
excavations carried out in 2006 on the site of the former "Adler-Apotheke"
(Eagle apothecary) in Forst near Cottbus in the Lausitz, and the associated
finds of clay-pipe fragments. The Adler-Apotheke (1662) is the oldest
apothecary so far documented in Forst. The small, insignificant pipe-stem
fragments must be considered amongst the most important finds obtained
during the excavations. They provide evidence for the extensive trade
connections and markets, and confirm that the apothecaries possessed valuable
privileges, allowing them to deal in tobacco and tobacco pipes and such
items. These finds in Forst demonstrate that the Lausitz too was a market
for Gouda pipes during the 18th century.
Martin Vyšohlid, Prague, gave an account of numerous finds
of clay pipes from the Czech Republic. Thus, for the first time, it was
possible to obtain an overview of the variety of shapes, origins, and
ages of clay pipes from this region. The first record of tobacco in the
Czech Republic was in 1592, and in 1622 we find the first mention of tobacco
pipes. Extensive excavations were carried out in the grounds of a former
barracks on the "Platz der Republik" on the boundary between
the old and new parts of Prague. These excavations yielded the remains
of buildings, as well as a variety of material dating from the 12th to
19th century. Amongst the finds were over 900 clay-pipe fragments. The
marks and inscriptions on the pipe bowls show that the pipes are products
of the Netherlands, Poland, Slovakia, Bohemia, Hungary and Austria. Thirty
of the fragments belong to an unusual two-piece type of pipe with barrel-shaped
bowl and rouletted rim, some of which are glazed. A similar type has turned
up in central and eastern Germany, but where they were made is not yet
known. A notable but uncommon type has a small bowl decorated with a cupid;
one of these pipes bears the mark "CK". The variety of other
types, such as Turks-head pipes, glazed chibouks with no mark, shoe-shaped
pipes, Vienna coffee-house pipes and finally porcelain pipes, reflect
the whole spectrum of tobacco-smoking devices used in Prague over a span
of 300 years. It should be noted that some types of pipe certainly have
a definite connection with the different troops that occupied the barracks.
Benedict Stadler, Mannheim, presented the results of the recent
excavations in the potters' quarter in Mannheim. Demolition of a house
in quadrant H3.15 revealed several rubbish pits, latrines and an old workshop
that may have been destroyed by fire in 1690. On the floor was a layer
of compressed debris containing clay pipe fragments. A large lump of clay
in the workshop area showed that a potter or pipemaker worked there. Amongst
the 2000 finds made during the excavations were 20 different types of
pipe, which promise to yield useful information for researching the history
of pipemaking in Mannheim in the 17th century. Three pipemakers are documented
as having worked at this site. The inscription "Mannheim 1684"
appears on several pipes, and the name of a Mannheim pipemaker "Hans
Henrich" also turns up, the first and only record of this man so
far. It is possible that he was employed by the pipemaker Hans Güttmann,
who is documented as having worked on this site. There is no evidence
that any pipemakers occupied the site after 1689. The new archaeological
material will considerably improve our knowledge of clay-pipe production
in Mannheim, which, according to archaeological sources, began in 1650.
The excursion on 28th April was to the only remaining snuff mills
in the Netherlands at Kralingen near Rotterdam. The Holland windmills
"De Ster" and "De Lelie" at Kralingen were used in
the production of snuff from 1803 to 1962, and occasionally to grind spices.
The mills have now been conserved by private initiative, and since 1996
have functioned as a museum so that this historic trade can be appreciated
by a wider public. A member of the mill society gave our party an account
of the history of the mills and the methods used in snuff production.
We then had a guided tour through the "De Lelie" mill.
Natascha Mehler and Ralf Kluttig-Altmann reported on the work and
future plans of the German Society for Clay-Pipe Research. The latter
said that he was prepared to continue as Chairman of the Society. Increased
use is being made of the internet for conference booking, records of finds,
and discussion. It was announced that all pipe finds from Thuringia are
now available as material for a master's or doctor's dissertation. There
should be more possibilities in the future to tackle regional topics of
The periodical KnasterKOPF, for which we have now found a new printer
in Saxony, will have "Clay pipes as grave finds" as a theme
for Volume 19, which will have about 150 pages. It should be issued early
in 2008. It is planned to issue a new number of KnasterKOPF every two
years. We are also planning to produce a new Index covering Volumes 11
to 20, for which we shall need a team of indexers. The theme for Volume
20 will be "Metal pipes". The forthcoming Meeting of the German
Society for Clay-Pipe Research will be on 25-27 April 2008 in Forst near
A cordial vote of thanks was extended to Ruud Stam and to the staff
of the MuseumgoudA for their hospitality and for the excellent organisation
of the Meeting.
Hamburg, Oct. 2007
Dr. Rüdiger Articus
Marmsdorfer Weg 70, D - 21077 Hamburg
ruediger.articus [at] helmsmuseum.de