Part of a pipe stem with inscription SCHONDUBE, maker
unknown, ?Holland, 18th century
No. 2/1990, p. 1-8
Jens Klaucke: Clay pipes from Wustrow
The pipe fragments found in Wustrow, Lüchow-Dannenberg, although
very broken, contained 20 stems bearing texts and 15 bowls bearing
marks. These enabled two source areas to be identified. Dutch pipes
originate, according to the marks (serpent and crowned "H")
and the inscriptions on the stems ("I. GIRREGOO" and "IN
GOUDA"), from the Dutch clay pipe making town of Gouda. Pipes
with a mark showing the "Hanoverian horse" clearly originate
from Lower Saxony but it was not possible to discover the source
more accurately. One stem with the inscription "BOSSE/DANCYCH"
probably does not come from Danzig but from Walbeck, which is not
far away and where a clay-pipe maker named Bosse lived. One stem
bearing the name "WEFERLINGEN" leaves no doubt as to its
origin, but another bearing "SCHONDUBE(I)" could not be
Stem fragments of pipes
made by Jan Girrebo in Gouda
and N.N. Bosse in Walbeck,
second half of 18th century
No. 2/1990, p. 9 ff.
Lutz Libert: The clay-pipe factory at Weissenspring
In 1765, Kienitz, a Prussian military attaché, established
a clay-pipe factory in an abandoned hammer mill in Weissenspring
near Frankfurt an der Oder. The clay-pipe factory was modelled on
the Dutch factories. The factory produced about 70,000 clay pipes
per annum around 1800 and was fortunate in being granted privileges
that protected it from competition from the Netherlands as well
as from products made in other Prussian factories, e.g. Rostin.
The pipes were marked with the town's name and the mark on the bowl
was a crowned "B", a crowned "H" or the letters
"L", "W" or "Z". Marks with a mill
with a water wheel, a cross and a jumping dog have also been observed.
The factory was forced to close around 1835 on account of the drop
in demand for clay pipes. The buildings were demolished in 1838.
No. 2/1990, p. 11-36
Rüdiger J.J. Articus: Smoking and tobacco-pipe manufacture
Written evidence documents that tobacco was smoked in Hamburg in 1595
and that Otto Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg, who lived in Harburg,
was presented with tobacco and clay pipes by an English diplomat.
Smoking spread rapidly in Schleswig-Holstein during the 30-years'
war (1618-1648). This is confirmed by numerous reports and by documents
originating from the customs collectors in Tönning (tobacco imports
from 1627 on), Glückstadt (1634 onwards), and Itzehoe (1636 onwards).
At first clay pipes were imported from Holland, and this is reflected
in the pipe finds. In Schleswig-Holstein, production of clay pipes
was started by English immigrants in 1641, but production ceased in
the middle of the 18th century; thus, the market had to rely on products
from Holland and southern Lower Saxony. As late as 1776 we find that
a clay-pipe maker is mentioned in Altona, but production must have
ceased there shortly before 1850. Other places where clay pipes were
manufactured are mentioned in the literature, e.g. Schleswig, Meldorf,
and Itzehoe. However, detailed information is only given for Itzehoe,
where J. Göbel established a clay-pipe factory in 1814. Production
ceased in 1869. The products of the clay-pipe makers of Schleswig-Holstein
are so far very rare, while imported pipes are found not only in large
quantities but also in a wide variety.
Dutch pipes with heel; top: with rosette on bowl, second half
of 17th century; and bottom: mark on back of bowl shows King
David holding a head and a sword, mid 18th century.
No. 2/1990, p. 37
Matthias Seeliger: Clay-pipe makers in the region of the present
GDR - amendments
Several readers have kindly pointed out further clay-pipe production
centres in the former GDR, that can be added to the list presented
in KnasterKOPF No. 1/1989, p. 17-24: Berge near Havelberg, Brandenburg,
Eberswalde, Havelberg, and Werder near Potsdam.